The term `Expressionist’ was initially applied to French modern painting displayed in a Berlin Secession exhibition of 1911. By the time of the First World War; the broader concept of `Expressionism’ permeated German metropolitan culture at many levels. Though lacking stylistic cohesion, the movement was united by a rejection of Impressionism and a search for an inner, essential reality behind the external world of appearances.
Futurism, the brainchild in 1909 of Italian writer and cultural impresario F.T. Marinetti, was the defining avant-garde art movement of the early twentieth century. Inspired by the cities, technology, speed and latent violence of the world around them, as well as by the ideas of thinkers such as Bergson and Nietzsche, the Futurists created an